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All manuscripts received will be peer reviewed before publication. Reviewers, normally two per manuscript, will have 30 days to complete their revision. If possible, the author should indicate three or four referees qualified to review the manuscript (and any referees who should be avoided, providing a proper explanation for this). Authors are asked to closely follow the guidelines below to avoid delay in the revision process. All manuscripts should be submitted to the editor by email (, as a Word document; receipt will be acknowledged. Manuscripts will be taken for revision only if they are not being concomitantly considered for publication elsewhere.

Manuscripts should be written in English. If English is not the first language of the author(s), please consider, prior to submission, a revision by a native speaker or a person well-versed in the language. Please note that language editing will not affect the decision on acceptance/rejection of the manuscripts. Both American and British English are accepted, as long as this choice remains constant throughout the whole text.

General Presentation

The manuscript should be submitted as a Word document. The text should be justified, the font Times New Roman size 12, line spacing 1.5. Exceptions for this formatting are noted below (please also refer to the appropriate section for manuscripts presented as research notes).

- Title: Font size 14, bold, centered. Authorship of taxa should not appear in the title. If the inclusion of high ranking taxa is needed, only class and family should be given (separated by a comma). Example: “Notes on the distribution of Cepaea vindobonensis (Gastropoda, Helicidae)”.

- Author name: First and last names should be spelled in full; middle names should be abbreviated.

- Author affiliation: Indicated by numbers. Font size 11.

- Short running head: Maximum 50 characters.

- Abstract: Maximum 300 words.

- Keywords: Up to five keywords should be provided. They should not repeat the title.

- Heading: Headings (like “abstract”, “introduction” and so on) should be in all caps, bold, centered. A second level of subsidiary headings can be used; these should be justified, bold. Do not number headings.

- Main text: The main text normally consists of Introduction, Material and Methods, Results (or Systematic Descriptions), Discussion. The main text should be followed by the Acknowledgements (if any), References, Figure Captions (if any) and Table Captions (if any).

- Methodology: (1) The International System of Units (metric system) should be used. (2) Nomenclature and nomenclatural acts (descriptions of new taxa and taxonomic revisions) must be in agreement with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th ed., 1999). (3) Geological periods, epochs, ages and so on must be in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Chart (published by the International Commission on Stratigraphy). (4) When applicable, the methodology must be in accordance with international, national and/or institutional legislation and regulations for the ethical treatment of the animals.

- Type material: Authors are required to deposit type specimens in public museums or institutional collections. Authors should also request registration numbers of deposited material in advance to avoid unnecessary delay of publication.

- Voucher material: Authors of non-taxonomical works are also strongly advised to deposit voucher material in public museums or institutional collections.

- Authorship of molluscan taxa should be given for all genus and lower level ranks. Authorship should be included in the References section for species and lower level ranks.

- Authorship of non-molluscan taxa need not be given.

- Use of hyphens and en-dashes:  Hyphens should be used to link compound words and some prefixes. En-dashes (–) should be used to link spans, like size ranges, distribution, page numbers, figure numbers and years.

- Footnotes should be altogether avoided.

- Supplementary data are not accepted. All data should appear in the main text.

Nomenclature and Systematic Descriptions

The names of genera, subgenera, species and subspecies should be italicized. When taxa of these levels are first mentioned, the authority and date should be given in the following manner (and included in the References): Bulimulus Leach, 1814; Bulimulus fazendicus Maury, 1935; Bulimulus regularis (Pfeiffer, 1852).

Headings for all taxonomic categories in taxonomic papers should be centered. Abbreviations of nomenclatural acts, such as “comb. nov.” and “sp. nov.”, should be in bold. In works dealing with genus or species-level taxa, the only mandatory higher-level taxa to be given is the family (sub-family is optional). The type species of the genera should always be noted.

The synonymy should be presented in font size 11, in a condensed format, in chronological order of usage, as in the example below:

Bulimus zebra Spix, 1827 (non Bruguière, 1789): 8, pl. 7, fig. 5.

Bulimus (Bulimulus) onager Beck, 1837: 64.

Bulimus onager: Reeve, 1848: pl. 45, fig. 284; Küster & Pfeiffer, 1844: 167, pl. 16, fig. 16; Pfeiffer, 1853: 342; Küster & Pfeiffer, 1854: pl. 50, figs. 9–10.

Liostracus onager: Albers, 1860: 213.

Drymaeus (Leiostracus) onager: Pilsbry, 1899: 94, pl. 14, fig. 16; Morretes, 1949: 151.

Leiostracus (Leiostracus) onager: Breure, 1979: 127.

Leiostracus onager: Parkinson, Hemmen & Groh, 1987: 132, pl. 12, fig. 9; Salgado & Coelho, 2003: 163; Simone, 2006: 122, fig. 383.

Subsidiary headings in taxonomic descriptions should be in bold, with the text continuing on the same line: “;Diagnosis: …”. These headings should include, in the following order: Type material (for new taxa only; otherwise the types should be given in the beginning of the “material examined” section), Material examined, Etymology (for new taxa only), Diagnosis, Description (or separate headings for Shell, Radula etc.), Distribution, Habitat, Remarks (if any). Leave a blank line between the topics. Diagnoses and descriptions must be presented in “telegraphic” taxonomic style, unless regular full sentences are needed for clarity or more detailed explanations.


References in the text should be like::

- “Smith (2001) said…”

- or “… (Smith 2001)…”

- or “… (Smith 2000a, 2000b; Brown & Smith 2004; Smith et al. 2010)

Note that, when in parentheses, the authors’ names appear in small caps. To do this in MS Word, select the word, right click on it, select “Font”. In the newly opened Font dialog box, under “Effects”, select the “Small Caps” check box.

As remarked above, authorship of a taxon is never in small caps and has a comma between the author’s name and the year.

The references should be listed alphabetically. Authors’ names should be in bold. Journal (and book) titles should be in italics and cited in full. When a book title contains a genus or species name, it should not be italicized. The format for each case is as follows: ;

- Article:

Gould S.J. & Vrba E.S. (1982) Exaptation: a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8(1): 4–15.

- Books:

Pilsbry H.A. (1899) Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata. Vol. 12. American Bulimulidae: North American and Antillean Drymaeus, Leiostracus, Orthalicinae and Amphibuliminae. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia.

- Chapters:

Ponder W.F., Colgan D.J., Healy J.M., Nützel A, Simone L.R.L., Strong E.E. (2007) Caenogastropoda. In: Ponder W.F. & Lindberg D.L. (Eds.) Molluscan Phylogeny. University of California Press, Los Angeles. Pp. 331–383.

- Websites:

Author. (2012) Title of website. Publisher name. Available from: (Date of access: 20/viii/2013).


Figures should be indicated in the text as “… (Figure 1)”, “… (Figures 1, 3, 5)” or “… (Figures 1–5)”. They should be numbered in a single series, with Arabic numerals. Figure captions should be placed at the end of the manuscript, after the References..

All figures should be submitted in .jpeg or .tiff format, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. All figures must be prepared in a manner ready for publication (i.e., Strombus does not offer figure editing services).


Tables should be presented on a separate Word document. They should be referred to in the text as “Table 1” and so forth. Table captions should be placed at the end of the manuscript, after the Figure Captions.

Research Notes

Short manuscripts (up to four pages of text, with 1.5 spacing) can be submitted as Research Notes. There should be no abstract or headings. All other regular guidelines also apply to research notes. References should be cited as in full papers!


updated July 2014